The hedgehog is an annual herb with stems from the base branch, lying flat, and light brown. 1.5-5 cm long, 6-14 leaflets, opposite, oblong, 6-15 mm long, 2-5 mm wide, apex acute or blunt, slightly slanted at base, suborbicular, entire.
The main components of the fruit contain tribuloside, namely tiliroside, kaempferol, kaemopferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutose (kaempferol-3-rutinoside), quercetin, vitamin C, also contains diosgenin and peroxidase. Seeds contain trace amounts of harman. The main fatty acids in seed oil are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. (linolenic acid) and the like. Dried fruit contains fatty oil and a small amount of volatile oil, tannin, resin, sterol, potassium salt, trace alkaloids, saponin. Seeds contain alkaloids Harman and Harmine, but do not contain saponins.
1.Effect on blood pressure Baiqi aqueous extract, ethanol-water extract and 30% ethanol extract have antihypertensive effects on anesthetized animals. The antihypertensive effect of alcohol extract on dogs is achieved by cholinergic nerves, and atropine and cutting off bilateral vagus nerves can block this effect. The alkaloid part has no effect on the blood pressure of the dog, but has an inhibitory effect on the frog heart, and the water-soluble part has a moderate antihypertensive effect. Clinical studies have shown that the therapeutic amount of saponin has no significant effect on the patient's blood pressure.
2.Effects on the heart Animal experiments show that: saponin has the effect of dilating coronary arteries, improving coronary circulation, enhancing cardiac contractility, slowing heart rhythm, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and preventing pituitrin and isoproterenol. Induced ischemic electrocardiogram changes, have anti-myocardial ischemia and reduce the scope of myocardial infarction. Clinical studies have shown that patients taking saponin treatment of coronary heart disease have the effect of relieving angina pectoris, improving myocardial ischemia, and can improve the symptoms of chest tightness, palpitations, shortness of breath and pain in the precordial area to varying degrees.
3.Anti-arteriosclerosis The oral administration of saponin to rabbits at 10 mg/kg for 60 consecutive days can significantly reduce the cholesterol level of experimental hypercholesterolemia and increase the lecithin/cholesterol ratio. Preventive experiments show that: saponin can significantly inhibit the increase of blood cholesterol, and can inhibit the lecithin / cholesterol ratio decreased. In addition, there is inhibition of arterial, myocardial and liver lipid deposition. However, some reports suggest that the clinical treatment dose of saponin has no significant effect on blood lipids.
4.Diuretic as a decoction of white peony decoction and its ash water extract diuretic effect, its diuretic effect is mainly due to the presence of potassium salt. Some reports suggest that in addition to potassium salts, the alkaloids also have a certain diuretic effect. Clinical treatment is effective for patients with ascites and edema. However, some reports indicate that diuresis is not ideal in saline-loaded rats.
5.Strong action and anti-aging effect Saponins have a certain strong effect on the body, and have certain inhibitory effects on some degenerative changes in the body aging process. Experiments show that: saponin can significantly increase the weight of spleen, thymus and body of aging model mice induced by d-galactose, significantly reduce cholesterol and blood sugar levels, reduce pigment granules in spleen of aged mice, and aggregate It has obvious improvement trend; it can prolong the swimming time of rats, and has biphasic regulation of rat adrenal function; it can increase the weight of liver and thymus in young mice, and enhance the ability of mice to withstand high temperature and cold resistance; Drosophila growth and development have a good promoting effect, which can prolong the life of fruit flies.
6.Effect on sexual function The total saponin of stems and leaves has no promoting effect on the sperm sac and prostate development of male testis male rats, and it can not increase the weight of uterus in ovariectomized mice, suggesting that it has no androgenic and estrogen-like effects; However, it can promote the development of sexual organs in young mice, indicating that the drug has a gonadotropin-like effect. However, this effect can be inhibited by pituitary and pre-injection of morphine, suggesting that it may first stimulate the hypothalamic release of gonadotropin-releasing factor, which in turn through the anterior pituitary.
7.Effect on smooth muscle: The water extraction part has anti-acetylcholine contraction effect on the rat intestinal tube, and the alkaloid part can also resist the contraction caused by acetylcholine in the isolated intestine and frog rectus abdominis.
8.Other effects Alkaloids and water-soluble parts can inhibit the movement of rat small intestine and can antagonize the action of acetylcholine. The frog abdominal rectus experiment also showed that the sterol extract has anti-cholinesterase activity; the central excitatory effect is also the result of anticholinesterase. Plant extracts inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.