Plant extracts can be divided into different components according to their chemical properties, and can be distinguished into different components according to physical or physicochemical properties. For example, the difference in adsorption or exchange of plant extracts with different resin columns can be completely divided into different component segments.
Compared with the component research method, the component research method can remove high hygroscopic components and harmful components in plants on the one hand, and concentrate the active components at the same time, thereby preparing a high-concentration high-content preparation, reflecting the characteristics of high technology. . On the other hand, it is a mixture, not a monomer, a part of which is a known active ingredient in the mixture, and another part which is an unknown and potentially effective ingredient (so called a "grey box" method). The historical practice of phytochemistry has repeatedly proved that there are often more essential components in that part of the unknown. In the industrial method of modern plant extracts, the component method is more advantageous, and the research methods of component method and component method are more recognized.
The process of plant extracts has two poles opposing views and methods. One pole is a traditional Chinese medicine treatment method, which is nothing more than water decoction, hydroalcohol method and alcohol water method (distillation method for individual volatile drugs). The other pole is the westernization method, which is the purification of phytochemicals. These two poles each have their own reasons and method values.
1, the traditional method, rough process, the shortcomings are obvious: (1) difficult to make high concentration of preparations, such as forcibly made high concentration tablets, it is easy to absorb moisture, mold, and vice versa, the amount is too large, not Convenience. If the dose is lowered, the dose is too low and the effect is not obvious. (2) The chemical composition is so shallow that it is difficult to deepen scientific research and it is difficult to integrate with modern pharmaceutical science. (3) Quantitative indicators are difficult to be strong and vulnerable to “parallel imports”. (4) Heavy metals are easy to exceed foreign targets and difficult to go to the world.
2. Chemical purification is a method of scientific research and has great significance for the understanding of microscience. However, if it is a commercial development method and research method, its weaknesses are (1) people's understanding of plant active ingredients is a deepening process, not one step. The history of phytochemistry shows that this is often the case. When we think that we have discovered the active ingredients of plants, but in fact it is only one of the active ingredients, it may be easier to purify and easier to find, not necessarily more essential. ingredient. Therefore, we should not be hasty. (2) More essential phytochemicals are often difficult to refine and difficult to quantify complex structures. (3) The interior of the plant itself is a miniature compound preparation. Its efficacy often comes not only from one or a certain type of chemical composition, but several types of chemical components all work, but there are primary and secondary. We suspect that within them, it is likely that, like the traditional Chinese medicine compound preparation, there is a relationship with Junchen. The effects of purified chemical monomers are not good, and there are many examples. For example, Ginkgo biloba extract has a good effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. After extracting ginkgolides, it loses its cerebral vasculature and reduces cardiovascular effects, which proves that lactone is more important. However, the clinical verification results of pure lactone injection are not ideal, far less than the mixture injection. Those who have experience in the preparation of intravenous injections of Chinese herbal medicines know that the injections made by purifying the plant components, although their quantitative indicators are much higher, are far less effective than the injections of the mixture. (4) Purification greatly increases the industrial cost and wastes other available resources.