● Name : ginseng extract
● Other name：Panax ginseng C. A. Mey
● Source：Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root
● Latin name：Panax ginseng C. A. Mey
● Ingredient： Ginsenosides
● Specfication ：80%UV/30%-45%HPLC
● Test methods：HPLC/UV
● CAS No.： 51542-56-4
● Molecular Formula： C48H82O18
● Molecular Weight： 947.15
● Appearance： brown yellow powder
Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins. Compounds in this family are found almost exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng), which has a long history of use in traditional medicine that has led to the study of pharmacological effects of ginseng compounds. As a class, ginsenosides exhibit a large variety of subtle and difficult-to-characterize biological effects when studied in isolation.
Ginsenosides can be isolated from various parts of the plant, though typically from the roots, and can be purified by column chromatography. The chemical profiles of Panax species are distinct; although Asian ginseng, Panax ginseng, has been most widely studied due to its use in traditional Chinese medicine, there are ginsenosides unique to American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Japanese ginseng (Panax japonicus). Ginsenoside content also varies significantly due to environmental effects.
Ginseng is any one of the 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae.
Ginseng is found in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly northeast China, Korea, Bhutan, eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates. Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng known. This article focuses on the species of the series Panax, which are the species claimed to be adaptogens, principally Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is in the same family, but not genus, as true ginseng. Like ginseng, it is considered to be an adaptogenic herb. The active compounds in Siberian ginseng are eleutherosides, not ginsenosides. Instead of a fleshy root, Siberian ginseng has a woody root.
Ginsenosides are named according to their retention factor value in thin layer chromatography (TLC). They can be broadly divided into two groups based on the carbon skeletons of their aglycones: the four-ring dammarane family, which contains the majority of known ginsenosides, and the oleanane family. The dammaranes can be further subdivided into two main groups, the protopanaxadiols and protopanaxatriols, with other smaller groups such as the ocotillol-type pseudoginsenoside F11 and its derivatives.
Most known ginsenosides are classified as members of the dammarane family. The structure of these dammarane ginsenosides consists of a 4-ring, steroid-like structure. To each ginsenoside is bound at least 2 or 3 hydroxyl groups at the carbon-3 and -20 positions or the carbon-3, -6, and -20 positions respectively. In protopanaxadiols, sugar groups attach to the 3-position of the carbon skeleton, while in comparison sugar groups attach to the carbon-6 position in protopanaxatriols. Well known protopanaxadiols include Rb1, Rb2, Rg3, Rh2, and Rh3. Well known protopanaxatriols include Rg1, Rg2, and Rh1.
Ginsenosides that are a member of the oleanane family are pentacylic, composed of a five ring carbon skeleton.
Most studies of the biological effects of ginsenosides have been in cell culture or animal models and thus their relevance to human biology is unknown. Effects on the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, the immune system have been reported, primarily in rodents. Antiproliferative effects have also been described.
Many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties. Ginsenosides have been observed to increase internal antioxidant enzymes and act as a free-radical scavenger. Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 have been observed in cell models as having an inhibitory effect on the cell growth of various cancer cells while studies in animal models have suggested that ginsenosides have neuroprotective properties and could be useful in treating neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Two broad mechanisms of action have been suggested for ginsenoside activity, based on their similarity to steroid hormones. They are amphiphilic and may interact with and change the properties of cell membranes. Some ginsenosides have also been shown to be partial agonists of steroid hormone receptors. It is not known how these mechanisms yield the reported biological effects of ginsenosides. The molecules as a class have low bioavailability due to both metabolism and poor intestinal absorption.
1.Ginseng is effective for treating colds, coughs, rheumatism, neuralgia, gout, diabetes, anemia insomnia, stress, headache, backache and double vision.
2.It is helpful in normalizing menstruation and easing childbirth.
3.It against Periodontal Disease which is a progressive destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth.
4.Ginseng also counteracts the effects of physical and emotional stress, enhances memory, counteracts fatigue without caffeine, and improves stamina.
5.Ginseng stimulates the immune system, by spuring the production of the body's own virus fighting chemicals, helps reduce cholesterol levels in the blood, has anti-clotting effects, reducing risk of arterial blood clots;
6.It helps control diabetes by reducing blood sugar levels;
7.It is known as an antioxidant, preventing the cumulative cell damage researchers believe cumulates in cancer;
8.It protects the liver from the effects of drug, alcohol and toxins, minimizes cell damage from radiation, and increases intestinal absorption of nutrients.
(1). In food field, it is a kind of nourishing food which has much benefits to brain;
(2). Applied in pharmaceutical field, it can be used to treat coronary heart disease and has better effect;
(3). Applied in cosmetic field, it owns the function of whitening, dispelling spot,anti-wrinkle, and activating skin cells.