Purple Cabbage Extract Pigment
● Name :Purple Cabbage Extract Pigment
● Source: Purple Cabbage
● Botanical Name :Brassica oleracea Capitata Group
● Extract part: whole plant
● Composition :Anthocyanidins
● Color Value: (EL%1cm535±5nm)NLT50
● Identification measure :UV-VIS
● Appearance: Fine Purple powder
● Country of origin:P.R. China
Brassica oleracea is the species of plant that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, kohlrabi and kailan. In its uncultivated form, it is known as wild cabbage. It is native to coastal southern and western Europe. Its high tolerance of salt and lime and its intolerance of competition from other plants typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs, like the chalk cliffs on both sides of the English Channel, and the windswept coast on the western side of the Isle of Wight.
Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra)is a kind of cabbage, also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation.It is native to southern Europe and now can be found in Northern Europe, throughout the Americas, and in China.
The red cabbage (purple-leaved varieties of Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) Its leaves are coloured dark red/purple and changes its colour according to the pH value of the soil, due to a pigment belonging to anthocyanins. In acidic soils, the leaves grow more reddish, in neutral soils they will grow more purple, while an alkaline soil will produce rather greenish-yellow coloured cabbages. This explains the fact that the same plant is known by different colours in various regions. Furthermore, the juice of red cabbage can be used as a home-made pH indicator, turning red in acid and green/yellow in basic solutions.
Red cabbage (RC), known also as purple cabbage is very low in saturated fat, cholesterol and a source of thiamin, riboflavin, folate, K, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, K, B.Red cabbage has 10 times more vitamin A and twice as much iron as green cabbage and is a fantastic source of phyto-chemicals and contains a plethora of minerals”, including potassium, manganese, iron, and magnesium.
Red cabbage is also rich in a number of bioactive substances, including anthocyanins ,presenting high antioxidant properties which may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, brain disorders and cancer.
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that abundant in fruits and vegetables.Appearing red, purple, or blue depending on the pH,they are recommended mostly due to their health benefits as dietary antioxidants, as an anti-inflammatory, and their potentially protective, preventative, and therapeutic roles in many of the human diseases.
Anthocyanins, plant pigments in fruits and berries, have been shown to delay cancer development in rodent models of carcinogenesis, especially those of the colorectal tract.In cells in vitro, both glycosides and aglycons engage an array of anti-oncogenic mechanisms including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of activities of oncogenic transcription factors and protein tyrosine kinases.Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cancer chemopreventive properties of Anthocyanins in animal models of breast, skin, oesophageal, lung, oral and gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.
Anthocyanins have also exhibited chemopreventive properties in chemically-induced models of colorectal carcinogenesis. Rats received 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) to induce colorectal adenomas and carcinomas followed by dietary supplementation (at 5%) with extracts of purple corn, purple sweet potato or red cabbage and the carcinogen 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazopyridine (PhIP) which induces aberrant crypt foci (ACF) .The average number of adenomas and adenocarcinomas was significantly reduced in rats which received flavonoids compared to controls. Induction of ACF by PhIP was significantly inhibited by purple corn and red cabbage colourings.
Red cabbage is rich in a number of bioactive substances, including anthocyanins. Study showed red cabbage anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside diacylated with sinapic acid exert the potent radical-scavenging activities toward both 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation and superoxide anion radical. The results obtained indicated that red cabbage has its own characteristic anthocyanin pattern as well as a kind of acylation that affects the antioxidant activity of acylated anthocyanins.
Investigation reported on Folia Horticulturae Ann determined a ntiradical scavenging activity using the DPPH and ABTS methods. The level of phenolics of all the groups, especially that of the anthocyanins, as well as RSA, was much higher in red cabbage in comparison to white. Among red cabbage assays, also a considerable variability of antioxidative parameters was observed.Four-month commercial storage resulted in a significant reduction in phenol compounds in red cabbage, but this was not the case in the white cultivar. Radical scavenging activity did not significantly change after cold storage, except in 2005/06, when a decrease in RSA measured by the DPPH method was noticed. The values of RSA determined by the ABTS method exceeded those determined by DPPH.
The anti-inflammatory effects ofred cabbage pigments was determined by HPLC, and administered to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)stimulated murine splenocyte cultures.The study on Food Chemistry showed that red cabbage (RC) exhibited antiinflammatory effects against LPSinduced inflammation of splenocytes via increasing antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)10 and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine IL6 secretions. The maximum absorption peaks of RC and its heated products, but not activated charcoaladsorbed products, appeared at 280 nm with a small shoulder around 310–330 nm while there existed a minor peak at 560 nm (range from 480 to 630 nm), reflecting red cabbage juice included phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. The lyophilized powder of chromatographic fractions F2, F3, and F4 through Sephadex LH20 column were rich in phenolics (5.9 ± 0.2%, 4.4 ± 0.0%, and 3.9 ± 0.0%, respectively) and flavonoids (1.8 ± 0.3%, 1.8 ± 0.3%, and 1.1 ± 0.3%, respectively). The results suggest that antiinflammatory pigment compounds in red cabbage juice were heat stable. Further analysis of chromatograms from HPLC suggests malvidin glycosides including malvidin 3glucoside (oenin), malvidin 5glucoside and malvidin 3,5diglucoside in red cabbage juice could inhibit IL6 secretion of LPSstimulated splenocytes.
Epidemiological studies that anthocyanins (ATH) protected platelet proteins and lipids
against oxidative damage, and diminished platelet activation. ATH from red cabbage provided beneficial anti-platelet effects and might help prevent cardiovascular diseases.
A in vitro study investigated the potential protective properties of red cabbage ATH against oxidative damage induced by LPS in blood platelets. Exposure of platelets to LPS resulted in carbonyl group increase, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, lipid peroxidation and O2(•-) generation. The study have shown that ATH extract effectively decreased oxidative stress induced by LPSs. The in silico analysis demonstrated that both cyanin and LPS were located at the same region of human TLR4-MD-2 complex. Report suggest that there could be two-way ATH platelet protection mechanism, by their antioxidant properties and directly by binding with TLRs.
The rich red color of red cabbage reflects the concentration of anthocyanin polyphenols,which “contribute to red cabbage containing significantly more protective phyto-nutrients than green cabbage”.
Uses: Used in ice cream, cake, frozen sucker, biscuit, cooked meat, jam and It is also widely applied in medicine and cosmetics.
Amount to be used: Add the amount according to the need.
Usage: When using pigments of powder, get a little water, put the exact amount of pigment into the water according to the required amount, and stir the pigment into paste, and finally add required amount of water into the paste. Keep stirring till the paste turns into an ideal liquid. As for oil dissoluble pigment, you can heat the cream or liquid-products (about 30-40 degrees centigrade), and then add the pigment and stir fully till it can be used.
● Brassica oleracea Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
● Red cabbage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
● Anthocyanin- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
● Draghici G.A et al; “Red cabbage, millennium’s functional food”;JOURNAL of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology
● Thomasset, Sarah et al; “Do anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, cancer chemopreventive pigments in the diet, merit development as potential drugs?”;Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
● Wieslaw Wiczkowski et al; “Red cabbage anthocyanins: Profile, isolation, identification, and antioxidant activity”;Food Research International
● Maria Leja et al; “Phenolic compounds as the major antioxidants in red cabbage”;Folia Horticulturae Ann
● Jinyuarn Lin et al; “Characterisation of the pigment components in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.) juice and their antiinflammatory effects on LPSstimulated murine splenocytes”;Food Chemistry.2008
● Saluk J et al; “Red cabbage anthocyanins as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in blood platelets”;Int J Biol Macromol. 2015
● Joanna Saluk et al; “Anthocyanins from red cabbage extract — evidence of protective effects on blood platelets”;Central European Journal of Biology