Water Soluble Milk Thistle Extract Silymarin Extract Powder Silymarin Milk Thistle Extract

Water Soluble Milk Thistle Extract Silymarin Extract Powder Silymarin Milk Thistle Extract

● Name :Artichoke Extract
● Source: Artichoke Leaf
● Botanical Name : Cynara scolymus L
● Extract part: Leaf
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Product Details

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Product Description:

● Name :Artichoke Extract

● Source: Artichoke Leaf

● Botanical Name : Cynara scolymus L

● Extract part: Leaf

● Composition ratio :50 to 1

● Appearance: Fine Brown powder

● Country of origin:P.R. China

Source

Cynara scolymus L is commonly known as artichoke or the globe artichoke ,it is a species 

of thistle cultivated primarily as a food but also a medicinal plant .The edible portion of the plant 

consists of the flower buds before the flowers come into bloom. And the leaf of artichoke is the 

part that used as one of the world’s oldest herbal medicine with multiple health benefits.It has 

been known by the ancient Egyptians, and the ancient Greeks and Romans used it as a digestive 

aid. Long known as an herbal medicine, the dried leaves of artichoke have been used in folk 

medicine because of their hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective activities.

Main bio-actives

The artichoke leaves contain a number phenolic acids, flavonoids (rutin, luteolin), cynarin and 

sesquiterpenes (especially caryophyllene and beta-selinene). It also contains tannins, sugar 

substances, inulin, mucus substances, phytosterols (taraxasterol), essential oil, provitamin A and 

several enzymes.

Cynarine is a chemical constituent in Cynara scolymus. The majority of the cynarine found in 

artichoke is located in the pulp of the leaves, though dried leaves and stems of artichoke also 

contain it. It inhibits taste receptors, making water (and other foods and drinks) seem sweet.

Functions

Antioxidative

The antioxidantive effect of artichoke extract was investigated in 2002.The report on J Agric Food 

Chem showed the methanol and water of blanched (thermally treated) artichoke yielded (24.3 

grams per 100 g of dry extract)more antioxidant phenolics than other byproducts with possible 

industrial applicability.

Futher studies were conducted to examine the antioxidative characteristics of Cynara scolymus 

inconsideration of its application in food industry and health-promoting products.One study 

published on Food and Nutrition Sciences in 2014 determined the extract exhibited a good 

polyphenol content (528 μg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity (EC50 less than 5 mg). Further 

investigation shows the extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, 

Staphylocccus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus 

pathogen strains.These finding suggested that Cynara scolymus extract is a good source of 

health-promoting polyphenols, encouraging a nutraceutical use of such ecotype, for several 

phyto-pharmaceutical applications.

Anti-inflammatory

There are researches investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of artichoke leaf extracts.One of 

the investigation was released on Molecules in 2014 demonstraed that

artichoke exert anti-inflammatory activity by downregulating the expression of Inducible Nitric 

Oxide Synthase(iNOS) in human coronary smooth muscle cells.As iNOS produces large quantities 

of NO upon stimulation, such as by proinflammatory cytokines and associates with a key 

pathogenic mechanism in many pathological conditions such as septic shock and stroke.The study 

result shows the polyphenolic compounds ,caffeoylquinic acid ,flavones and the anthocyanidins 

from artichoke all downregulated iNOS mRNA expression with cynarin being the most potent one 

both in HCASMC and at the protein level.

Gastrointestinal

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L) contains indigestible organic matter that reaches the colon and is 

substrate for intestinal microbiota. A study of the capacity of artichoke to modify metabolic 

activities of colonic bacterial enzymes were conducted in the cecal content of Wistar rats.In 

administrated rats ,Artichoke modified bacterial enzyme activities (increased β-glucuronidase, 

β-glucosidase, and nitroreductase and reduced nitrate reductase and azoreductase activities), which 

enhances the capacity of microbial enzymes to metabolize glycosides and nitrocompounds.

Another research published on Biol. Pharm. Bull in 2010 demonstrated that artichoke leaf extract 

is effective against acute gastritis due to its cynaropicrin in study on rats .Cynaropicrin from the 

artichoke leaf extract prevented gastric mucosal injury in animal models as it dosedependently 

prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content and gastric juice by absolute ethanol.These 

finding suggest that the extract of artichoke may beneficial to the gastrointestinal health.

Hypotensive and anti-hyperlipidemic

Artichoke has been long known as an herbal medicine for treating hypertension,hyperglycemic 

and hyperlipidemic.

Study reported on Journal of Dietary Supplements showed significant activity of artichoke leaf 

extract in modulating both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a a randomized, 

placebo-controlled human trial.

Further investigation conducted in 2012 to study the effects of artichoke leaf extract in treatment 

of hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients.The clinical trial repoeted on Journal of 

Medicinal Plants showed the significant lowering effect of artichoke leaf extract on the blood 

levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol without any significant effects on the blood levels 

of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, other lipids, SGOT, SGPT and 

creatinine (P>0.05) compared with placebo at the endpoint and any adverse effects.Such results 

suggest that fiber-free artichoke extract may be a safe anti-hypercholesterolemic agent but does 

not improve glycemic control in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting the 

involvement of fibers in the anti-hyperglycemic effect of artichoke.

Anticancer

The apoptotic and cytotoxic activity of artichoke has been studied .One investigation was focus on 

artichike activity against DLD1 colorectal cancer cells .The report on Asian Pacific Journal of 

Cancer Prevention showed hexane extracts from wild and cultivated artichoke were all found to 

induce pro-apoptotic (BAX) gene expression and a cell cycle inhibitor (p21) .In contrast, 

anti-apoptotic BCL-2 gene expression was reduced compared to the control group. In addition 

DNA fragmentation results demonstrated DLD1 cell death via apoptosis.

Applications

In various pharmacological tests artichoke leaf extracts have shown hypotensive , 

anti-hyperlipidemic ,anti-hyperglycemic, choleretic activity ,hepatoprotective and prebiotic

effects . In addition, artichoke leaf extracts contain compounds with antifungal and antimicrobial 

activities.

Recent studies indicate that artichoke leaf extracts may also have therapeutic potential for

cardiovascular disease. The plant contains multiple compounds with high antioxidant properties .

Extracts of the leaves and root are helpful in arteriosclerosis, jaundice, dyspepsia, liver 

insufficiency, chronic albuminuria, and postoperative anemia, reduces cholesterol blood levels. In 

some countries, considered an aphrodisiac.

● Artichoke;Wikipedia, the free 

encyclopedia;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artichoke#cite_note-18

● Artichoke;The Herbal 

Resource;http://www.herbal-supplement-resource.com/artichoke-herb.html

● Llorach R,et al; “Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of 

health-promoting antioxidant phenolics”;Journal of Agricultural and Food 2002

● Ning Xia,et al; “Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible 

Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells”;Molecules 2014

● Florinda Fratianni,et al; “Polyphenol Composition, Antioxidant,Antimicrobial and Quorum 

Quenching Activity of the “Carciofo di Montoro” (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) Global 

Artichoke of the Campania Region, Southern Italy”;Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2014

● Isabel Goñi,et al; “Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L) modifies bacterial enzymatic activities and 

antioxidant status in rat cecum”;Nutrition Research 2005

● Kazuo ISHIDA,et al; “Effects of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in 

Rats”;Biol. Pharm. Bull.2010

● Roghani-Dehkordi, F.; Kamkhah, A. F; “Artichoke leaf juice contains antihypertensive effect in 

patients with mild hypertension.”;Journal of Dietary Supplements 2009

● Fallah Huseini H (Ph.D.),et al; “Cynara scolymus L. in Treatment of Hypercholesterolemic Type 

2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial”;Journal of 

Medicinal Plants 2012

● Wider B,et al ; “Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia”;Cochrane Database 

Syst Rev. 2013

● Ela Nur Simsek,et al; “In vitro Investigation of Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Cynara L. 

Species in Colorectal Cancer Cells”;Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 14, 2013

● ARTICHOKE;- WebMD;

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-842-ARTICHOKE.aspx?activeIng

redientId=842&activeIngredientName=ARTICHOKE

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